multiple sclerosis amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pseudobulbar syndrome motoneuron disease neurogenous muscolar dystrophy hemiparkinson spastic tetraparesis balo's concentric sclerosis
Dr. Domenico Fiore: sclerosi multipla Dr. Domenico FIORE
V.le Madonna delle Grazie, 17
35028 Piove di Sacco (Padova)

Multiple sclerosis (MS); Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS);
Non-Patched Neuropathies (NPN)

G.M.P., 38 years old. He was admitted (Genuary 2002) in the Division for Infective Diseases in one of the most famous public hospital, in the northern part of Italy, to exclude the eventual infective etiology of two demyelinating lesions of the white substance (the first one was revealed by RMN in Genuary 2000; the second one in December 2001). Among the various tests which were made, there were the following: titration of neutrophils anti cytoplasm (ANCA): absent; research for Aspergillus antigen: negative; research for anti-Aspergillus antibodies: negative; IgG anti-CMV: 5,5; IgM anti-CMV: absent; IgG anti HSV1 e HSV2: absent; IgM anti-HVS: absent; IgG anti-VCA-EBV: 4,0; IgM anti-VCA-EBV: absent; IgG anti-VZV: 2,3; IgM anti-VZV: absent; IgG anti-toxoplasma: < 4; IgM anti-toxoplasma: absent; research for Cryptococcus antigen, negative; CMV-IEA: negative; anti-Borrelia Burgdorferi antibodies: absent; Lue serology: negative; parasitic test of feces: negative; anti-HIV1/2 antibodies: absent; Widal-Wright: negative. Cerebrospinal Fluid: Limpid aspect, colourless, albumin: 36,3; IgG: 4,23; nucleated elements < 1 ; viral DNA reaserch in the Liquor: negative for HSV1, HSV2, CMV, EBV, HVZ, HHV6, JCV; cultural test: negative; reaserch for Oligoclonal Bands: negative. Final issue of Specialists: the test executed during the admission period excluded the infective etiology.

After the dismissal, the patient asked for an anti-Bordetella Pertussis antibodies research. Results: anti Bordetella IgG 0,64 O.D., cut-off 0,56 O.D., Absorbance 11,40 (positive ³ 8 ); anti Bordetella IgM 0,14 O.D., cut-off 0,27 O.D., Absorbance 5,18); anti Filamentous H.A. IgA 0,93 O.D. (positive for infection caused by Bordetella Pertussis in S-phase ³ 0,30 O.D.); anti Filamentous H.A. IgG 0,65 O.D.; anti Pertussis Toxin IgA 0,29 O.D.; anti Pertussis Toxin IgG 0,30 O.D. Report of Pesaro Civil Hospital: very recent infection.

Having found (See notes 1 - 6) positive the research for anti-Bordetella antibodies in the 95.47 % of 92 patients affected by defined MS (patients not selected for the clinical form and for the therapeutical treatment) and in the 100 % of 41 patients affected by NPN (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Pseudobulbar Syndrome, Motoneuron Disease, Neurogenous Muscolar Dystrophy; Hemiparkinson, Spastic Tetraparesis, Balo's Concentric Sclerosis):
after the test made by Acqui Terme ASL 22 7 [in 25 patients with defined MS: 11 came out to be affected by an acting infection by Bordetella Pertussis on S-phase (Bordetella in S-phase is virulent and contagious); 14 came out to be affected by an acting infection by Bordetella Pertussis on R-phase].

I reassessed the pathogenesis of the neuropathies from Bordetella Pertussis:

  • In MS, the astrocytes are producers of II-class HLA-Antigens and make the endothelia expose adhesion molecules. The immune circulating complexes (ICC), "kept" by adhesion molecules, precipitate in the central nervous system: we have MS (damages from ICC precipitation = patches).
  • In NPN (ALS), astrocytes are not producers of II-class HLA-Antigens; the endothelia of cerebral vessels do not expose adhesion molecules. The persistence in circulation of most part of ICC which form up, leads to their progressive increase, so that, in the end, the inhibitory mechanisms that ICC themselves trigger off in the production of antibodies are onset. In chronic pertussis infections, in subjects with astrocytes non-producers of II-class HLA-Antigens, during the inhibiting phases from immune complexes (relative lack of antibodies), Bordetella toxins go into blood and fix themselves directly on neuroepithelia: we have neuropathies without patches. The pathogenic power of the various pertussis toxins perfectly explains the neuroepithelial damages characteristic of the neuropathies without patches.
Implication: after the test made by Acqui Terme ASL 22 (See note 7) and the clamorous confirmation of the exposed case, no Doctor will have the right to ignore the results of my research exposing to disability patients who, after a simple blood test, could be rationally treated.


  1. Fiore D.: The Multiple Sclerosis. On:
    - Bollettino dell`Ordine dei Medici di Padova. 1988, N° 4. 19.
    - Confer. Internat. Federation of Multiple Sclerosis Societies. Dublino 1990. 45.
    - MS conference - Sud East Eurpean Society for Neurology. Poznan (Poland). 1991. 4.
    - Confer. Internat. Federation of Multiple Sclerosis Societies. Amsterdam (The Netherlands), 1991. 58.
    - 1994 Meeting of the Europea Federation of Neurological Societies. Poznan, Poland, 1994.
    - Congresso Annuale della Federazione Mondiale Sclerosi Multipla IFMSS 1994. Budapest 1994. 24.
    - "Bollettino" dell'Ordine dei Medici di Padova. n° 5, 1995. 17.
    - XXIX Congr. Naz. Società Italiana Neurologia. Supplemento al n. 7 di "Ital. J. Neurol. Sci." 1995. 71
    - XVI Congresso Mondiale di Neurologia Buenos Aires, sett. 1997, 4-31.05
    - 26° Congresso Naz. Soc. Italiana di Microbiologia Baveno, sett. 1997, 150

  2. Fiore D.: Multiple sclerosis: microbiology, serology, treatment. XVI Congresso Mondiale di Neurologia - Buenos Aires, sett. 1997. Journal of the NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES. Supplement to vol. 150. 4-31.05.
  3. Fiore D.: Sclerosi Multipla - Diagnosi, terapia, profilassi. - Attualità e Prospettive. Volume degli Abstrac del Congresso S N O. Otranto 2000. 96-70.
  4. Fiore D.: Encefalo-Medullopatie da Bordetella Pertussis. Riv. di Neurobiologia, 3/2001, 219-222.
  5. Fiore D.: "I fattori immunologici nella patogenesi delle encefalo-medullopatie da Bordetella Pertussis" - EOS, n° 3, vol XX, 2000, 63-70.
  6. Fiore D.: Bordetella Petussis Diseases: Acute - Relapse - Chronic. Immunology - Clinic forms -Treatment. EOS, vol. XXI, 2001, n° 3-4, 61-85
  7. Camogliano L.- Polverelli M.- Valente A. - Mazzarello M. G. (+ Torriglia A. M., tecnico di Laboratorio): Anticorpi anti Bordetella Pertussis in 25 pazienti con SM-definita. In: Sclerosi Multipla
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